Tag Archives: ERA

Elizabeth Blackwell: Herstory 2

Originally Posted on March 2, 2012 by freemenow

Elizabeth Blackwell (3 February 1821 – 31 May 1910) was the first female doctor in the United States.

She was the first openly identified woman to graduate from medical school, a pioneer in educating women in medicine in the United States, and was prominent in the emerging women’s rights movement.

Elizabeth Blackwell was born in Bristol, England and spent her early years living in a house on Wilson Street, off Portland Square, St Pauls, Bristol.

She was the third of nine children born to sugar refiner Samuel Blackwell and his wife, Hannah (née Lane).  Blackwell could afford to give his numerous sons an education and also believed that his daughters should get the same education as boys, so he had them tutored by the house servants.

While growing up, Blackwell lost six of her sisters and two of her brothers. One night when Blackwell was 11, a fire destroyed her father’s business. In 1832, the family emigrated to the United States and set up a refinery in New York City. The Blackwells were very religious Quakers. They believed that all men and women were equal in the eyes of God.

Due to their Quaker beliefs, the Blackwell family was anti-slavery. An opportunity was presented to Samuel Blackwell that allowed him to open a refinery in Ohio, where slaves would not be needed to harvest the sugar, so the Blackwells moved to Cincinnati. Three months after they moved, Elizabeth’s father got very sick with biliary fever and died.

After the death of her father, Blackwell took up a career in teaching in Kentucky to make money to pay for medical school. Blackwell found this work unpleasant. Desiring to apply herself to the practice of medicine, she took up residence in a physician’s household, using her time there to study from the family’s medical library. She became active in the anti-slavery movement (as did her brother Henry Brown Blackwell who married Lucy Stone, a suffragist). Another brother, Samuel Charles Blackwell, married another important figure in women’s rights, Antoinette Brown.

In 1845, she went to Asheville, North Carolina, where she read medicine in the home of Dr. John Dickson. Afterwards, she read with his brother Dr. Samuel Henry Dickson in Charleston, South Carolina.

She attended Geneva College in New York. She was accepted there — anecdotally, because the faculty put it to a student vote, and the students thought her application was a hoax — and braved the prejudice of some of the professors and students to complete her training. Blackwell is said to have replied that if the instructor was upset by the fact that Student No. 156 wore a bonnet, she would be pleased to remove her conspicuous headgear and take a seat at the rear of the classroom, but that she would not voluntarily absent herself from a lecture.

However, most of the faculty and students were not very polite to her. Blackwell’s male peers treated her very rudely. On 11 January 1849, she became the first woman to earn a medical degree in the United States, and graduated, on 23 January 1849, first in her class.

Banned from practice in most hospitals, she was advised to go to Paris, France and train at La Maternité, but had to continue her training as a student midwife, not a physician. While she was there, her training was cut short when in November, 1849 she caught a serious eye infection, purulent ophthalmia, from a baby she was treating. She had her eye removed and replaced with a glass eye.

In New York City, Elizabeth opened up her own practice. She was faced with adversity, but did manage to get some media support from entities such as the New York Tribune. She had very few patients, a fact Elizabeth attributed to the stigma of woman doctors as abortionists. In 1852, she began delivering lectures and published The Laws of Life with Special Reference to the Physical Education of Girls, her first work, a volume about the physical and mental development of girls. Although Elizabeth herself pursued a career and never married or carried a child, this treatise ironically concerned itself with the preparation of young women for motherhood.

In 1857, Blackwell along with her sister Emily and Dr. Marie Zakrzewska, founded their own infirmary, named the New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children. During the American Civil War, Blackwell trained many women to be nurses and sent them to the Union Army. Many women were interested and received training at this time. After the war, Blackwell had time, in 1868, to establish a Women’s Medical College at the Infirmary to train women, physicians, and doctors.

In 1857, Blackwell returned to England where she attended Bedford College for Women  for one year. In 1858, under a clause in the 1858 Medical Act that recognized doctors with foreign degrees practising in Britain before 1858, she was able to become the first woman to have her name entered on the General Medical Council’s medical register (1 January 1859).

In 1869, she left her sister Emily in charge of the college and returned to England. There, with Florence Nightingale, she opened the Women’s Medical College. Blackwell taught at London School of Medicine for Women, which she had co-founded, and accepted a chair in gynecology. She retired a year later.

During her retirement, Blackwell still maintained her interest in the women’s rights movement by writing lectures on the importance of education. Blackwell is credited with opening the first training school for nurses in the United States in 1873. She also published books about diseases and proper hygiene.

She was an early outspoken opponent of circumcision and in 1894 said that “Parents, should be warned that this ugly mutilation of their children involves serious danger, both to their physical and moral health.” She was a proponent of women’s rights and pro-life.

Her female education guide was published in Spain, as was her autobiography.

In 1856, she adopted Katherine “Kitty” Barry, an orphan of Irish origin, who was her companion for the rest of her life.

In 1907 Blackwell was injured in a fall from which she never fully recovered. She died on 31 May 1910 at her home in Hastings in Sussex after a stroke. She was buried in June 1910 in Saint Mun’s churchyard at Kilmun on Holy Loch in the west of Scotland

Advertisements

Sexism and Misogyny Begins and Ends with Women

BettyJean Downing

The key to ending sexism/misogyny is stopping women from being sexists and misogynists and ends when women stop tolerating it at all levels.

When women unite, this world will be a better place but again that key is women! As long as the authorities can, keep women and children in a position of powerlessness, fear, and servitude by keeping them fighting each other – they win.

We are still the majority! Rise MAJORITY rise!

“So my real Labor Day wish is that we women stop finding things to divide us, stop letting others divide us using artificial devices to pit us against each other, and use our strength in numbers to come together and find solutions. Once we have found some answers, we need to act TOGETHER to get things done and not count on other people to do it for us. We have all of the brainpower, creativity, and common goals we need. We are lucky enough to live in a country that affords us the freedom to act. We just need to find the will to break away from old ways of thinking and make our world what we want it to be. ” Cynthia Ruccia  9/5/11

There is an insidious liberal movement to turn women into the minority right here in the USA as it is in the rest of the world. Our courts are male dominated and favored toward the males, DV is up, and women are murdered nearly five a day. Children are taken from their mothers and given to their abusive and sexually abusive fathers. Mothers are tossed into the streets and forced to pay alimony and child support without means to do so – thrown in jail then sexually abused by officers. Children are trafficked by their own fathers or photographed and pics sold as Kidde porn. Male dominated countries are buying trafficked female teen salves for sex:

The world is becoming unbalanced. In pockets across the globe, women are giving birth to too many boys. In China, the sex ratio is 121 boys to 100 girls. In India, it’s 112-to-100. Sex selection also is a force in the Balkans, Armenia and Georgia. In her eye-opening book, “Unnatural Selection: Choosing Boys Over Girls, and the Consequences of a World Full of Men,” journalist Mara Hvistendahl estimates that ultrasound and abortion have “claimed over 160 million potential women and girls — in Asia alone.” That is more than the entire female population of the United States.

Just look at the 2011 demographics and you can see the shift in the numbers in the younger generation as a result of killing the female unborn in countries where women are devalued. American women have targeted for years, women are liberated free to abort their children,  (52% female) free to be sexualized and objectified, but clearly not elevated to serve in the highest levels of office.

According to Cynthia Ruccia at WW2 We have never had a female president. Her readers and ours are predominately Independents, some who fled the emocratic party after Hillary Clinton, America’s best hope for a female president, was deprived by the Democrat Party in favor of MAKING HISTORY BY INSTALLING a BLACK MAN INSTEAD. A women with her competence would have been even more historic it turns out!

  1. The United States ranks #70 in the world in female representation in government
  2. Women make 75 cents on the man’s dollar
  3. Only 2.7% of CEO’s of Fortune 1000 companies are women
  4. Only 20% of Board positions are held by women, a number that has declined from a high of 24%
  5. 38% of companies in the U.S. have NO women in senior management
  6. Only 6 state governors are women
  7. Women hold approximately 24% of state legislative positions

Meanwhile Conservative women have proven American women can both reproduce, thus maintaining the majority in the US and be professional
women outside the home. Clearly, it is the Conservative women now running for
the highest offices. Female Republican candidates’ biggest problem is liberal
women who cannot cope with women who CAN do it all and are not whining about it!

Good old boys club and media continues to violate women because they can–  and it affects all women. It affected Gerry and Hillary before it affected Sarah and Michelle. Wake up ladies. The key to ending sexism/misogyny is to stop tolerating it from each other as well as from media and the government.

If you could fit the entire population of the world into a village consisting of 100 people maintaining the proportions of all the people living on Earth today, that village would consist of only one clear majority and that would be of women. That majority is beginning to disapear. No matter what color, race, national origin, religion or corner of the villiage we inhabbit the one thing that is absolutely true is that as women we are still a majority voice and in the US we still have the right to speak up and fight for equal rights and demand representation.  Let’s do this before we no longer have that option.

2011 Demographics

  • 57 Asians
  • 21 Europeans
  • 14 Americans (North, Central and South)
  • 8 Africans
  • 52 Women
  • 48 Men
  • 30 Caucasian 70 Non Caucasian
  • 30 Christian 70 Non-Christian
  • 89 Heterosexuals 11 Non heterosexuals 

Age structure

  • 0-14 years: 26.3% (male  944,987,919/female 884,268,378)
  • 15-64 years: 65.9% (male   2,234,860,865/female 2,187,838,153)
  • 65 years and over: 7.9% (male  227,164,176/female 289,048,221) (2011 est.)

Median age

  • total: 28.4 years
  • male: 27.7 years
  • female: 29 years (2009 est.)

Population growth rate

  • 1.092% (2011 est.)

Birth rate

  • 19.15 births/1,000 population      (2011 est.)

Death rate
                8.12 deaths/1,000 population      (July 2011 est.)

Urbanization

  • urban population: 50.5% of total population (2010)
  • rate of urbanization: 1.85% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
  • ten largest urban agglomerations: Tokyo (Japan) – 36,669,000; Delhi (India) – 22,157,000;  Sao
  • Paulo (Brazil) – 20,262,000; Mumbai (India) – 20,041,000; Mexico City (Mexico) – 19,460,000;
  • New York-Newark (US) – 19,425,000; Shanghai (China) – 6,575,000; Kolkata (India) – 15,552,000;
  • Dhaka (Bangladesh) – 14,648,000; Karachi (Pakistan) – 13,125,000 (2009)

Sex ratio

  • at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
  • under 15 years: 1.07  male(s)/female
  • 15-64 years: 1.02   male(s)/female
  • 65 years and over: 0.79   male(s)/female
  • total population: 1.01  male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Carolyn Maloney reintroduces ERA

Contributed by Jeff Imm R.E.A.L. http://www.RealCourage.org  

For the full text of the bill, click here.
For more information on the ERA, click here.
For MaloneyPress Release on the ERA, click here.

 A. Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney holding press conference reintroducing Equal Rights Amendment for Women

era1 

B. Attendees at Press Conference on Capitol Hill

 era2

 C. Responsible for Equality And Liberty’s (R.E.A.L.) Jeffrey Imm Joins the Support for the E.R.A.!

era3 

 D. From Quantico, Virginia – Rose Comes Out to Support the Reintroduction of the E.R.A.

 era4

 Jeffrey Imm, Responsible for Equality And Liberty (R.E.A.L.)
Email: realorg@earthlink.net
http://www.realcourage.org

 

ARKANSAS – ERA Actions Need for 2/10/09

On February 10th at 10AM ERA supporters will meet in Room 207 which is left of the old Supreme Court Room in the Capitol. We will pick up materials, get info and then go personally lobby senators and representatives for the ERA. Please pass the word to your friends who support and come to help us lobby.

The American Association of University Women is having Lobby Day that date and will have lunch in a room in the capitol cafeteria. Lunch cost $10. All are invited to join them for lunch with legislators. We must make reservations so please email me by 9AM this Thursday, Feb.5 if you would like lunch.
Keep up the emails and calls to all members of the State Agencies Committees and your area senators and representatives.
See you February 10!

Berta Seitz, ERA State Director
berta.seitz@att.net

Even if you are unable to join us in Little Rock–

TAKE ACTION!
Contact the Senate and House State Agencies Committee and ask them to support the Equal Rights Amendment.

Arkansas State Agencies Committee
Senate
Steve Faris – sfaris@arkleg.state.ar.us
Gilbert Baker – bakerg@arkleg.state.ar.us
Ed Wilkinson – ewilkinson@farmersbankandtrust.cox
Steve Bryles – bryless@arkleg.state.ar.us
Kim Hendren –hendrenk@arkleg.state.ar.us
Randy Laverty – none given phone 870-446-5005
Bobby Glover – cnhc@juno.com
Bill Pritchard – pritchardb@arkleg.state.ar.us

House of Representatives
Rick Saunders – saundersr@arkleg.state.ar.us
Lindsley Smith – smithl@arkleg.state.ar.us
Steve Harrelson – steve@steveharrelson.com
Eddie Cheatham – cheathame@arkleg.state.ar.us
Gene Shelby – shelbyg@arkleg.state.ar.us
Ed Garner – garnere@arkleg.state.ar.us
Clark Hall – hallc@arkleg.state.ar.us
Donna Hutchinson – hutchinsond@arkleg.state.ar.us
Larry Cowling – cowling@arkleg.state.ar.us
Dan Greenberg – Rep.greenberg@gmail.com
Duncan Baird – bairdd@arkleg.state.ar.us
Andrea Lea – lea@arkleg.state.ar.us
Jonathan Dismang – dismang49@hotmail.com
Butch Wilkens – blwilkins46@hotmail.com
Uvalde Lindsey –ULindsey@aol.com
Linda Tyler – tylerl@arkleg.state.ar.us
Karen Hopper – hopperk@arkleg.state.ar.us
Davy Carter – davy.carter@gmail.com
Tiffany Rogers – rogerst@arkleg.state.ar.us
Mary Slinkard – no email given

No ERA for MO it was Fixed to Fail

Cross posted by Bettyjean Kling from http://joliejustus.blogspot.com/ 
Jolie Justice is MO State Senator 10th District

The Senate Rules Committee today heard testimony both for and against SCR 3, a resolution calling on the Missouri General Assembly to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).

This is the third year in a row I have sponsored the resolution and I wish I could say I am surprised by the intense opposition, but not much surprises me anymore.

We didn’t get enough notice for the hearing to get a large number of witnesses to testify in favor of the legislation. Fortunately, two brave women came to town to testify and I truly appreciate their support.

Although the ERA seems like a no-brainer for the majority of Americans, there were several people on hand to testify against the bill. These organizations all have full-time lobbyists in the capitol, so they were not affected by the short notice. The following groups testified against equal rights for women: Concerned Women for America, Missouri Family Network, Eagle Forum, Missouri RoundTable for Life, Missourians United for Life and Missouri Right to Life.

This is the same group of folks who testify against the ERA every year. They list a parade of horribles that will alledgedly occur if gender equality is added to the Constitution including legalized gay marriage, state-funded abortion and mandatory unisex bathrooms. This year their testimony was limited to the abortion issue, which in my opinion is completely unfounded. Missouri has gender equality in its Constitution and I haven’t seen any lack of abortion regulations passed in this state.

The silliest line of questioning came from Senator Gary Nodler (R-Joplin) who asked whether ratifying the ERA would require the government to spend equal sums on money for ovarian cancer research in both women and men, even though men don’t have ovaries. He asked the same question about women and testicular cancer. I provided an intelligent and accurate response regarding how a court would handle such an absurd case at which point he cut me off with a preposterous rant that started with a reference to the “pregnant man” and ended with the Senator bashing the competence and integrity of judges.

Despite all that, I felt good about today’s hearing. I put forth a commonsense argument that the majority of Americans agree with. The opposition relied on their old standbys — fear and hate — and made no logical argument for defeating the resolution.

In the end I know the Senate will not pass the resolution. I will introduce it again next year and we will go through this circus again and again until we have a legislature that is committed to simple concepts like equality. It took 144 years to secure the right for women to vote. We’ve only been working on ratification of the ERA for 37 years. If we can’t get it done, our daughters will pick up the fight when we are gone.

If you feel passionately about this issue, I would encourage you to contact the members of the Senate Rules Committee and urge them to pass the resolution out of committee, so we can have a full debate on the Senate floor.