Category Archives: Herstory

Mercy Otis Warren: Herstory 9

BettyJean Downing Kling from http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0312848/mowarren.htm

Mercy Otis Warren (1728 – 1814)Who was the friend of Abigail Adams who fostered political agitation with her satirical plays and then a three-volume history of the American revolution in 1805?

Mercy Otis Warren was born in 1728 into a family of all boys, and there were many of them. She was born in Massachusetts. Mercy became a Patriot writer, and she wrote plays, poems and lots of other writings that supported independence. She used her writing to display her ideas. Her ideas and writings convinced many people in Massachusetts to become Patriots. Of all the people writing to support the patriotic cause, Mercy Otis Warren was the only woman who published plays, books, and poetry.

When she was a small girl, Mercy learned to express her feelings and ideas through reading, writing, and discussing politics. In 1743, she attended the Harvard Commencement and met James Warren. In November, 1754, she married James Warren and went to live in the Warren family estate at Eel River, Plymouth, Mass. She continued her studies with her brother James as he prepared at home for his master’s degree.

She and her husband would read the newspaper together. She had a thin, slender complexion. She had dark brown hair and her favorite color was blue. She loved wearing blue dresses and bonnets with lace edges. In 1757, they moved to Winslow house in Plymouth, Massachusetts. On October 18 that year, her son James was born. She had a son named Winslow who was born on March 24, 1759. Her son Charles was born on April 14, 1762.

In 1765, James Warren was elected to Massachusetts House of Representatives. Their son George was born a year later, in 1766. Between March 26 and April 23, 1772, selections from The Adulateur, written by Mercy Otis Warren, appeared in The Massachusetts Spy. Mercy Otis Warren wrote to her friend Abigail Adams about being treated as inferior because they were women.

Mercy Otis Warren continued to write and publish, and in 1790, her collection of Poems: Dramatic and Miscellaneous was published in Boston. In 1805, her History of the… American Revolution was published in Boston. From July through August,1807, ten letters from John Adams and six letters from Mercy were published concerning her treatment of him in the history book. This book contained sharp comments about John Adams. That’s why there was a separation of friendship with the Adamses that lasted until 1812.

Two of her plays insulted the Loyalists. She said that Britain’s laws and taxes were unfair and that families in the colonies couldn’t pay for expensive British goods. She also said that Britain was too far away to understand the colonists’ rights and needs. For this reason alone, the colonists would be better off alone with their own independence and freedom. She did not like the fact that Britain would not let women participate in politics. She strongly believed that women would have more rights if the colonies had their independence. Mercy also believed that women should have the right to vote.

  • Her plays included:
    The Adulateur, a five-act play, published in 1773
    The Defeat, excerpts from a play, published 1773
    The Group, a three-act play, published in 1775
    The Blockheads, a three-act play, published  in 1776, shortly after the British withdrew from Boston
    The Motley Assembly, a farce, published in 1779.

Mercy Otis Warren died on October 19, 1814, in Winslow house in Plymouth, Massachusetts. She strongly believed in independence, liberty, and in the power of the written word.

Read an essay about Mercy Otis Warren by Professor Nina Baym.
The Sunshine for Women site has a biography of Mercy Otis Warren.
Read more about Mercy Otis Warren at the Massachusetts Historical Website.
For a more complete list of her writings, click here.

International Women’s Day, 100th Anniversary – Herstory 8

BettyJean Downing

International Women’s Day has been observed since in the early 1900’s, a time of great expansion and turbulence in the industrialized world that saw booming population growth and the rise of radical ideologies.
1908
Great unrest and critical debate was occurring amongst women. Women’s oppression and inequality was spurring women to become more vocal and active in campaigning for change. Then in 1908, 15,000 women marched through New York City demanding shorter hours, better pay and voting rights.
1909
In accordance with a declaration by the Socialist Party of America, the first National Woman’s Day (NWD) was observed across the United States on 28 February. Women continued to celebrate NWD on the last Sunday of February until 1913.
1910
n 1910 a second International Conference of Working Women was held in Copenhagen. A woman named a Clara Zetkin (Leader of the ‘Women’s Office’ for the Social Democratic Party in Germany) tabled the idea of an International Women’s Day. She proposed that every year in every country there should be a celebration on the same day – a Women’s Day – to press for their demands. The conference of over 100 women from 17 countries, representing unions, socialist parties, working women’s clubs, and including the first three women elected to the Finnish parliament, greeted Zetkin’s suggestion with unanimous approval and thus International Women’s Day was the result.
1911
Following the decision agreed at Copenhagen in 1911, International Women’s Day (IWD) was honoured the first time in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland on 19 March. More than one million women and men attended IWD rallies campaigning for women’s rights to work, vote, be trained, to hold public office and end discrimination. However less than a week later on 25 March, the tragic ‘Triangle Fire’ in New York City took the lives of more than 140 working women, most of them Italian and Jewish immigrants. This disastrous event drew significant attention to working conditions and labour legislation in the United States that became a focus of subsequent International Women’s Day events. 1911 also saw women’s ‘Bread and Roses‘ campaign.
1913-1914
On the eve of World War I campaigning for peace, Russian women observed their first International Women’s Day on the last Sunday in February 1913. In 1913 following discussions, International Women’s Day was transferred to 8 March and this day has remained the global date for International Wommen’s Day ever since. In 1914 further women across Europe held rallies to campaign against the war and to express women’s solidarity.
1917
On the last Sunday of February, Russian women began a strike for “bread and peace” in response to the death over 2 million Russian soldiers in war. Opposed by political leaders the women continued to strike until four days later the Czar was forced to abdicate and the provisional Government granted women the right to vote. The date the women’s strike commenced was Sunday 23 February on the Julian calendar then in use in Russia. This day on the Gregorian calendar in use elsewhere was 8 March.
1918 – 1999
Since its birth in the socialist movement, International Women’s Day has grown to become a global day of recognition and celebration across developed and developing countries alike. For decades, IWD has grown from strength to strength annually. For many years the United Nations has held an annual IWD conference to coordinate international efforts for women’s rights and participation in social, political and economic processes. 1975 was designated as ‘International Women’s Year‘ by the United Nations. Women’s organisations and governments around the world have also observed IWD annually on 8 March by holding large-scale events that honour women’s advancement and while diligently reminding of the continued vigilance and action required to ensure that women’s equality is gained and maintained in all aspects of life.
2000 and beyond
IWD is now an official holiday in Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, China (for women only), Cuba, Georgia, Guinea-Bissau, Eritrea, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Madagascar (for women only), Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Nepal (for women only), Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam and Zambia. The tradition sees men honouring their mothers, wives, girlfriends, colleagues, etc with flowers and small gifts. In some countries IWD has the equivalent status of Mother’s Day where children give small presents to their mothers and grandmothers.
The new millennium has witnessed a significant change and attitudinal shift in both women’s and society’s thoughts about women’s equality and emancipation. Many from a younger generation feel that ‘all the battles have been won for women’ while many feminists from the 1970’s know only too well the longevity and ingrained complexity of patriarchy. With more women in the boardroom, greater equality in legislative rights, and an increased critical mass of women’s visibility as impressive role models in every aspect of life, one could think that women have gained true equality. The unfortunate fact is that women are still not paid equally to that of their male counterparts, women still are not present in equal numbers in business or politics, and globally women’s education, health and the violence against them is worse than that of men.
However, great improvements have been made. We do have female astronauts and prime ministers, school girls are welcomed into university, women can work and have a family, women have real choices. And so the tone and nature of IWD has, for the past few years, moved from being a reminder about the negatives to a celebration of the positives.
Annually on 8 March, thousands of events are held throughout the world to inspire women and celebrate achievements. A global web of rich and diverse local activity connects women from all around the world ranging from political rallies, business conferences, government activities and networking events through to local women’s craft markets, theatric performances, fashion parades and more.
Many global corporations have also started to more actively support IWD by running their own internal events and through supporting external ones. For example, on 8 March search engine and media giant Google some years even changes its logo on its global search pages. Year on year IWD is certainly increasing in status. The United States even designates the whole month of March as ‘Women’s History Month’.
So make a difference, think globally and act locally !! Make everyday International Women’s Day. Do your bit to ensure that the future for girls is bright, equal, safe and rewarding.
About this internationalwomensday.com website www.internationalwomensday.com  is a global hub for sharing International Women’s Day information, events, news and resources.The website was founded in 2001 as a non-profit philanthropic venture dedicated to keeping International Women’s Day (IWD) alive and growing.

Since 2007, IWD has gained considerable momentum due to greater media attention, events, social networking and corporate support. IWD is now celebrated via wide scale activity in almost every country and many world leaders support the day with official statements.
This service is proudly provided by Aurora Ventures as a non-profit venture and kindly supported by a number of companies who make it possible for this International Women’s Day website to operate. Without their support, the website could not survive. Each Supporting Partner has a firm track record in supporting women’s equality and advancement. We like to celebrate International Women’s Day, but we also want to celebrate our Supporting Partners! We urge you to acknowledge them whenever you can.

Girl Scout’s 100 Most Important Women in History: Herstory 7

BettyJean Downing

Shelby Ellery, created a site www.angelfire.com/anime2/100import/ as a gold award project, the highest award that can be awarded in Girl Scouting that has to take at least  50 hours to complete.  She chose this project  believing  that women aren’t recognized enough.

“I can name so many men that I have been taught by my teachers, but I really can’t name all that many women. This site is a resource for all those people out there who are just like me, no matter what age, curious about how women also affected who people are today and who the world wouldn’t be the same without. Take a moment to choose someone you have never heard of and look through this window into their soul, who they really were or are. By all means, help yourself. And thanks again!”

Jane Addams
Susan B. Anthony
Marie Antoinette
Saint Joan of Arc
Aspasia of Miletus
Nancy Witcher Langhorne Astor
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi
Jane Austen
Ella Baker
Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike
Clara Barton
Florence Bascom
Simone de Beauvoir
Aphra Behn
Ruth Fulton Benedict
Shirley Temple Black
Elizabeth Blackwell
Bonnie Kathleen Blair
Rosa Bonheur
Louise Arner Boyd
Pearl S. Buck
Marie Anne de Cupis de Camargo
Rachel Carson
Catherine the Great
St. Catherine
Chien-shiung Wu
Cleopatra
Juana Ines de la Cruz
Marie Curie
Agnes George de Mille
Emily Dickinson
Amelia Earhart
Marian Wright Edelman
Eleanor of Aquitane
Beatrix Jones Farrand
Edith Flanigen
Anne Frank
Rosalind Elsie Franklin
Betty Naomi Friedan
Elizabeth Gurney Fry
Margaret Fuller
Indira Gandhi
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
Caroline Lucretia Herschel
Judith E. Heumann
Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin
Ariel Hollinshead
Mary Phelps Jacob
Helen Keller
Billie Jean King
Aleksandra Mikhaylovna Kollontai
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross
Susette La Flesche Tibbles
Maya Lin
Juliette Gordon Low
Anne Sullivan Macy
Wilma Mankiller
Barbara McClintock
Catherine de Medici
Lise Meitner
Rigoberta Menchu Tum
Maria Montessori
Mother Theresa
Baroness Murasaki Shikibu
Florence Nightingale
Georgia O’Keeffe
Vijaya Lakshimi Pandit
Emmeline Pankhurst
Rosa Parks
Eva Peron
Christine de Pizan
Pocahontas
Queen Anne
Queen Elizabeth I
Queen Isabella
Queen Victoria
Jeannette Rankin
Sally Ride
Alexandra Romanov
Eleanor Roosevelt
Sakajawea
Margaret Sanger
Sappho
Rose Schneiderman
Gloria Steinem
Lucy Stone
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Harriet Russell Strong
Bertha von Suttner
Emma Tenayuca
Valentina Vladimirovna Nikolayeva Tereshkova
Margaret Thatcher
Alexandrine Pieternella Francoise Tinne
Sojourner Truth
Harriet Tubman
Tz’u Hsi
Yoshiko Uchida
Phyllis Wheatley
Mary Wollstonecraft
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow

 

Don’t forget this page: very helpful if you need some explanation of my choices, pictures, or anything common. Also includes a bonus woman and my works cited.

Notes from the Author

This page contains additional important women contributed by viewers of this webpage.

Additional Important Women

 And as always, if you have any questions or comments, feel free to email me (asukalangley13@hotmail.com)

Finished April 2001. Last updated November 7th, 2003

Susan B. Anthony: Herstory 6

By BettyJean Downing

Susan B. Anthony (1820 – 1906) 

Pioneering suffragist, Susan B. Anthony, fought courageously for women’s rights.  She was deeply respected, honored, and loved by the generations with whom she worked and inspired.  Yet, she was vilified and faced unrelenting criticism from those who opposed women’s rights.  Susan B. Anthony did not live to see women win the right to vote.  Yet, in her last public speech, she reminded her audience that when people of good faith work together for justice, “Failure is impossible.”

Susan B. Anthony was born February 15, 1820 in Adams, Massachusetts. She was brought up in a Quaker family with long activist traditions. Early in her life she developed a sense of justice and moral zeal.

After teaching for fifteen years, she became active in temperance. Because she was a woman, she was not allowed to speak at temperance rallies. This experience, and her acquaintance with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, led her to join the women’s rights movement in 1852.  Soon after, she dedicated her life to woman suffrage.

Ignoring opposition and abuse, Anthony traveled, lectured and canvassed across the nation for the vote. She also campaigned for the abolition of slavery, women’s right to their own property and earnings, and women’s labor organizations. In 1900, Anthony persuaded the University of Rochester to admit women.

Anthony, who never married, was aggressive and compassionate by nature. She had a keen mind and a great ability to inspire. She remained active until her death on March 13, 1906.

Thank you to the Susan B. Anthony House for this biography, http://susanbanthonyhouse.org

For more information : Winning The Vote